Is there such a thing as a national sense of humour?


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A statue celebrating Monty Python’s sketch The Dead Parrot near London’s Tower Bridge ahead of a live show on the TV channel Gold.
DAVID HOLT/Flickr, CC BY-SA

Gary McKeown, Queen’s University Belfast

We’re all aware that there are stereotypes. The British are sharply sarcastic, the Americans are great at physical comedy, and the Japanese love puns. But is humour actually driven by culture to any meaningful extent? Couldn’t it be more universal – or depend largely on the individual? The Conversation

There are some good reasons to believe that there is such a thing as a national sense of humour. But let’s start with what we actually have in common, by looking at the kinds of humour that most easily transcend borders.

Certain kinds of humour are more commonly used in circumstances that are international and multicultural in nature – such as airports. When it comes to onoard entertainment, airlines, in particular, are fond of humour that transcends cultural and linguistic boundaries for obvious reasons. Slapstick humour and the bland but almost universally tolerable social transgressions and faux pas of Mr Bean permit a safe, gentle humour that we can all relate to. Also, the silent situational dilemmas of the Canadian Just for Laughs hidden camera reality television show has been a staple option for airlines for many years.

Just for laughs.

These have a broad reach and are probably unlikely to offend most people. Of course, an important component in their broad appeal is that they are not really based on language.

Language and culture

Most humour, and certainly humour that involves greater cognitive effort, is deeply embedded in language and culture. It relies on a shared language or set of culturally based constructs to function. Puns and idioms are obvious examples.

Indeed, most modern theories of humour suggest that some form of shared knowledge is one of the key foundations of humour – that is, after all, what a culture is.

Some research has demonstrated this. One study measured humour in Singaporean college students and compared it with that of North American and Israeli students. This was done using a questionnaire asking participants to describe jokes they found funny, among other things. The researchers found that the Americans were more likely to tell sex jokes than the Singaporeans. The Singaporean jokes, on the other hand, were slightly more often focused on violence. The researchers interpreted the lack of sex jokes among Singaporean students to be a reflection of a more conservative society. Aggressive jokes may be explained by a cultural emphasis on strength for survival.

International humour?
C.P.Storm/Flickr, CC BY-SA

Another study compared Japanese and Taiwanese students’ appreciation of English jokes. It found that the Taiwanese generally enjoyed jokes more than the Japanese and were also more eager to understand incomprehensible jokes. The authors argued that this could be down to a more hierarchical culture in Japan, leaving less room for humour.

Denigration and self-deprecation

There are many overarching themes that can be used to define a nation’s humour. A nation that laughs together is one that can show it has a strong allegiance between its citizens. Laughter is one of our main social signals and combined with humour it can emphasise social bonding – albeit sometimes at the cost of denigrating other groups. This can be seen across many countries. For example, the French tend to enjoy a joke about the Belgians while Swedes make fun of Norwegians. Indeed, most nations have a preferred country that serves as a traditional butt of their jokes.

Sexist and racist humour are also examples of this sort of denigration. The types of jokes used can vary across cultures, but the phenomenon itself can boost social bonding. Knowledge of acceptable social boundaries is therefore crucial and reinforces social cohesion. As denigration is usually not the principle aim of the interaction it shows why people often fail to realise that they are being offensive when they were “only joking”. However, as the world becomes more global and tolerant of difference, this type of humour is much less acceptable in cultures that welcome diversity.

Self-denigration or self-deprecation is also important – if it is relatively mild and remains within acceptable social norms. Benign violation theory argues that something that threatens social or cultural norms can also result in humour.

Importantly, what constitutes a benign level of harm is strongly culturally bound and differs from nation to nation, between social groups within nations and over the course of a nation’s history. What was once tolerable as national humour can now seem very unacceptable. For the British, it may be acceptable to make fun of Britons being overly polite, orderly or reluctant to talk to stangers. However, jokes about the nature of Britain’s colonial past would be much more contentious – they would probably violate social norms without being emotionally benign.

Another factor is our need to demonstrate that we understand the person we are joking with. My own ideas suggest we even have a desire to display skills of knowing what another person thinks – mind-reading in the scientific sense. For this, cultural alignment and an ability to display it are key elements in humour production and appreciation – it can make us joke differently with people from our own country than with people from other cultures.

‘Fork handles’.

For example, most people in the UK know that the popular phrase “don’t mention the war” refers to a Fawlty Towers sketch. Knowing that “fork handles” is funny also marks you as a UK citizen (see video above). Similarly, knowledge of “I Love Lucy” or quotes from Seinfeld create affiliation among many in the US, while reference to “Chavo del Ocho” or “Chapulín Colorado” do the same for Mexicans and most Latin Americans.

These shared cultural motifs – here drawn mostly from television – are one important aspect of a national sense of humour. They create a sense of belonging and camaraderie. They make us feel more confident about our humour and can be used to build further jokes on.

A broadly shared sense of humour is probably one of our best indicators for how assimilated we are as a nation. Indeed, a nation’s humour is more likely to show unity within a country than to display a nation as being different from other nations in any meaningful way.

Gary McKeown, Senior Lecturer of Psychology, Queen’s University Belfast

This article was originally published on The Conversation. Read the original article.

Why NEW ENGLISH FILE? Here’s Why!


Welcome to the English File experience

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NEW ENGLISH FILE SERIES

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One way it does this is with a strong focus on pronunciation. Research shows that poor pronunciation is a major contributor to breakdowns in communication (Jennifer Jenkins: The Phonology of English as an International Language, Oxford University Press).New English File integrates pronunciation into every lesson – the ‘little and often’ approach – but that’s not all.

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In choosing which pre-intermediate level textbook for students to use in my English language classes, I chose the New English File Pre-Intermediate Student’s Book and have found it to be very appropriate. Students who have their own copy in a class can participate in the lessons, which are each well-structured with a main topic on which the exercises are based. The lessons differ in emphasis on functions in exercises (e.g. pronunciation, reading and speaking), although all lessons have grammar exercises. As some classroom exercises involve listening to entertaining passages / dialogues and answering questions about details mentioned, it is ideal to purchase the classroom CD as well, although the texts are provided at the back of the book and could be read orally. Other factors (time available for course, price of books, photo-copyable exercises from teacher’s book, exercises for each lesson on Oxford University Press website, etc.) led to my choosing the student’s book instead of the multipack book. Phonetics are used to teach pronunciation. Regular tests for specific stages of the syllabus can be found on the CD in the Teacher’s Book, which is useful but has to be purchased separately.

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About the Authors

Clive Oxenden

Clive Oxenden trained to teach EFL at International House, London, and later took his RSA (Cert) at Bromley College, Kent. He has taught English and trained teachers for 23 years, mainly in Spain but also in Turkey, Kuwait, Algeria, and the UK, where he was the RSA tutor at Padworth College in Berkshire. He has spent the last fifteen years teaching at the British Council, Valencia.

Clive’s most recent publication is English File, a multi-level course for Oxford University Press (with Christina Latham-Koenig and Paul Seligson).

Christina Latham-Koenig

Christina Latham-Koenig started her career in TEFL in 1976, teaching at International House and later at the British Council, both in Spain (Valencia) and in the UK. She got a distinction in the RSA Diploma in 1987, and then became a local supervisor for this course in Spain. She has worked as a teacher trainer for both native and non-native teachers of English. She now lives in Valencia, and she started collaborating as co-author of the English File series in 1995.

Paul Seligson

Paul Seligson has been teaching EFL since 1978. He started with International House in Algeria and France, and then moved to the British Council for whom he worked in Egypt, Venezuela, and Spain, where for five years he was the Assistant Director of Studies in Valencia. After a year writing in the USA he moved back to the UK and worked in various ESOL colleges, mainly teaching immigrants and refugees.

He now works freelance, dividing his time between writing, training, and travelling. In 2000 and 2001 he worked for OUP in Brazil as a teacher trainer.

He has an MA in TEFL, and is co-author of English File Levels 1 and 2, published by Oxford University Press.

New English File is available from BEBC here @ http://www.bebc.co.uk to be directed to our home page or click this link to be directed to the English file series http://www.bebc.co.uk/search_result.aspx

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